This leadership system has been developed with several points of concern in view.

  Dungeons & Dragons, an FRP, is intended to capture character dynamics in relationships.  Too often leadership is determined by player dynamics.  This system has been developed to identify character dynamics, and make players cognizant of which character is the emergent leader.

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The Basic Leadership Formula
Leadership and Party Splits
Leadership in Joint Ventures
Lending Leadership
Hierarchical Structures
Written Orders and Titles

  Charisma is initially the most important aspect of leadership, although other factors are significant.  (A first level character cannot enter the keep of a noble and take over merely because he is glib, charming, and manipulative.)  Leadership is a combination of character, power, experience, confidence, and reputation.  Thus, we have the following base formula:

Charisma x3 + Level x2 (All levels, all classes) + Trips Led

Additional bonuses are given for:

Having a party known by a character's name +10
Each Henchman* +5
Each Follower or Retainer* +2
Each Henchman of a Henchman, Follower, or Retainer* +2
Any other inferiors in subordination except paid hirelings* +1
Reaching Name Level +5
Constructing a Base (if of level to do so) +10
Receiving a Title (Infra)

  *Persons lower in the authority chain are penalized an amount equal to all bonuses granted to superiors, that is, a Henchman is -5, a Henchman's Retainer is -3 (2 to the Henchman, 1 to the liege), and a Henchman's Henchman's Henchman is -8 (5 to his liege, 2 to his liege, and 1 to his liege).

  Party leaders do not get credit for party members (his peers) or their retinues.

  Leadership determines who is the actual leader of any adventure:  the character with the highest leadership will ultimately get his way in most cases; the other characters will look to him for direction.

  Trips:  Any adventure or part of an adventure actually played during which a character leads any isolated group of at least himself constitutes one trip, with the limit that a character can only lead one trip per day.  The referee may award trip points for leadership of significant role-playing situations which are not per se adventures.

  Party Leader Name:  If characters coalesce around a leader such that local (non-party NPC) persons become familiar with that group by the name of their leader, the bonus accrues.

  Constructed Base:  If the character is of level sufficient to establish any type of base (stronghold, tower, guild, castle, chapel, fortress, cathedral, monastery, shrine) and does so, the bonus accrues.

  Under certain circumstances, certain races, classes, and alignments lend themselves to a leadership score based on strength instead of charisma.  The dungeon master may decide to substitute this alternate score if a character or monster tends to lead by threat.  In calculations involving monsters, hit dice are used for level.

Leadership and Party Splits

  When there is a party split, leadership is a vital factor in the process.

  A party faces a split whenever any character challenges the leadership of the established leader.  It also occurs if a character's leadership score passes that of the leader and the leader does not acquiesce to the new leadership.

  Even though such splits often happen quickly, everyone is sensitive to what choice others are making.  Therefore, character decisions are announced in order from highest leadership to lowest.  Players may make any choice they wish, but should be informed of the leadership ratio before their choice.  SC's (special characters under MyWorld rules who hold the status of PC when the player is present, but NPC when the player is absent) and NPC's use this system to decide.  No character may opt to follow a leader whose leadership total is lower than his own, but any character may form his own party.  If a character will not follow a particular leader, e.g., due to class alignment restrictions, that leader's party is ignored in all calculations.

  Except as noted, each character who must choose calculates the ratio of each party's total leadership and his own, and reduces the total to a percentage scale.  A party's total leadership is the sum of all leadership scores committed to a party.  Suppose that Bob, 104, is challenged by Bill, 98, for leadership of the Bob party.  Joe, 70, is unhappy with Bob, so he supports Bill, giving Bill's party (98+70=)168.  Jim, 65, feels Bob has done well, and stays with him, giving Bob's party (104+65=)169.  Fred, 60, must now choose.  For Fred, the ratio is 169 to 168 to 60 (himself)--397 total points, 43% Bob, 42% Bill, and 15% himself.  If he is a player at the table, he looks at these numbers and any other information and decides.  Otherwise, the referee rolls d100:  1-43 Bob, 44-85 Bill, 86-100 he starts his own party.  Then the next character repeats the process, incorporating Fred into the mix (unless Fred is a character he will not follow for reasons of alignment or class and has chosen to start his own party).

  Henchmen are treated differently.  If an established leader is challenged by someone with a lower leadership score, and the henchman's liege sides with the established leader, the henchman automatically goes along.  If the liege sides with an established leader who has been passed, or against any established leader (in some cases the only options), the henchman makes a loyalty check.  Success indicates that the henchman follows his liege.  Failure indicates that the henchman goes through the same process as an NPC, and if he picks contrary to his liege, he has left service.

Leadership in Joint Ventures

  When two or more parties combine for joint projects, the leader with the highest leadership score is the leader of all.  The party attached to any lower leader still regards their leader as leader, but regards him as having accepted the authority of another leader temporarily.  Their leader may countermand an order, or withdraw his party from the joint venture.

  The parties remain distinct for a number of days equal to the leadership score of the lower-ranked leader.  Thereafter, they merge, and can only be divided by a party split.  If the score of the lower-ranked leader increases during the union, the time is tolled by the increased score, that is, the parties merge on the first day on which the elapsed time exceeds the leader's current leadership in days.

  The highest leader does not get extra points for leading extra parties; he is assumed to be leading one party.  The lower leaders do not get points for leading unless they control part of the venture outside the presence of the highest leader.

Effects of Leadership Scores Over 100

  A character whose leadership score is over 100 has enough leadership to "lend" to another character.  This is done by appointing another character to lead activities which will be separated from the higher leader.  The appointee then receives a temporary boost to his leadership, partly from increased self-confidence and partly due to respect others have for the authority which appointed him.

  The increase is equal to 10% of the total leadership of the one appointing, for a number of hours equal to the higher character's leadership minus 100.

  Both the degree and the duration of the increase are doubled if the sphere of authority is defined as limited ("in charge of the equipment chest"), if the appointee is known to be carrying out specific instructions ("take these things back to camp"), or if the appointee is given a physical sign of his authority (a signet ring, a letter).  These doublings are cumulative, so an appointee given a symbol of authority to carry out known specific instructions in a limited sphere will have an eight-fold increase in degree and duration.  However, the degree of increase may not cause the appointee's authority to equal or exceed that of the one making the appointment; therefore, the appointee's adjusted leadership may be increased to the leader's leadership score minus one.

  Any appointee whose leadership as a result goes over 100 may similarly make appointments, but neither the degree nor the duration may exceed that of the original appointment.

  Making an appointment does not reduce the leadership of the one making it, and any number of discrete appointments may be made as long as there is no doubt as to sphere.  Persons may be appointed to serve as lieutenants in charge of specific tasks under the authority of another appointed to supervise all activities.

Effects of Leadership Scores Over 200

  Characters with leadership scores in excess of 200 may establish semi-permanent hierarchical structures through which authority may be exerted by proxy.  Those exercising authority may be replaced without significantly altering the structure.

  This is normally accomplished by defining offices and creating tokens of office.  The best example is the military, in which badges of rank serve as tokens and may identify spheres of authority.  Once the structure is established, anyone holding the token may exercise the authority described below.

  The top level of the hierarchy--the person or persons answering to the character with the highest leadership--receive a bonus to their leadership equal to 50% of the leadership of the leader above them, but again not equaling nor exceeding that individual's leadership.  This is in effect whenever they have their tokens of office (or are recognized as the person who rightfully owns the token), and applies to all matters within the sphere of authority of the token and to all persons answerable to the authority of the office.  A person given charge of the armory has authority over any person who works under him, as well as any matters concerning the arms in his care.

  An office holder attempting to exert authority outside the sphere of his token either over persons answerable to a different branch of the hierarchy or over matters not specifically his concern must rely on his own leadership score, without the office token bonus.

  At each level of the hierarchy the process repeats, with office holders of the second level receiving a bonus of 50% of the (adjusted) leadership of their superior on the first level, those on the third likewise drawing from superiors on the second.  No member of the hierarchy may have more that one immediate superior from whom this bonus is gained.  It is possible for the lowest level to draw leadership from the level above it if it is appropriate to the function, e.g., police officers over civilians in a liege's realm.

  Such hierarchies remain intact in the absence of a liege until he is presumed or known to be dead.  Appointments may be made by any leader above a position with an adjusted score of at least 100, or at the top level by another top-level officer with the highest adjusted leadership.

  Any time any member of the hierarchy gains ten trips, his superior gains one trip (for leading a leader).  This applies up the ladder, so that the person at the top can gain one trip point because a total of 1000 trips were led by 100 different persons three levels below.

Effects of Leadership Scores Over 500

  A character with a leadership score over 500 may exercise authority in absentia by written instructions, either left behind or delivered by courier.  Such written instructions carry the full authority of leadership if issued to members of a hierarchical structure established according to the rules for Leadership Scores Over 200, as they are presented as official documents.  Outside this context, their effect is equal to 50% of the character's leadership score, although for purposes of determining a split, characters with leadership above this amount may acquiesce to the written orders.

  A character with a leadership score over 500 may also attempt to claim a title.  Note that titles may also be conferred as part of a hierarchical structure established by a character who can and does take a title successfully.  The effects of having a title are as follows:

  1)  If the title is recognizable to the culture in which the character is located, the character may immediately exercise his full leadership score with strangers who have a friendly reaction.  That is, a character who can identify himself as "Count of Turanium" will be supported by all allies of Turanium.

  2)  Initial encounter reactions are bonused by +5% of the titled character's total leadership  (e.g., +25% for leadership of 500) if the title is stated and is familiar to the character or creature encountered.  "Prince Phillip" will be treated as a prince, even if "Phillip" has the same leadership score.

  3)  The character is treated as nobility in all ways, including those pertaining to a cavalier.

  4)  The title gives an additional Name Level leadership bonus in an amount appropriate to the title (see table).  This applies in all situations, even if the title is unfamiliar to the culture.

  A title successfully taken must be kept (not upgraded) for at least a calendar decade, ending in the last month of the last the last year of that decade, unless the titled character is given a higher title by another titled character.

  Titled characters may confer titles on any character.  Titles conferred must be lower in rank than the title of the character granting them, and must be of the same category (indicated by column on the chart).

  The probability of successfully taking a title equals 10% of the character's leadership score plus the character's charisma reaction modifier plus (or minus) the appropriate chance of success modifier for the title from the chart.
1 Emperor
Padishah Maharajah Kha-Khan -300% +1000
2 Pope Tarkhan -200% +500
3 King
Cardinal King
Sultan Shah Raja Ilkhan -150% +300
4 Archbishop -100% +200
5 Duke
Pfalzgraph Dey Caliph -80% +150
6 -60% +125
7 Prince
Herzog Bey Orkhan -40% +100
8 -20% +80
9 Marquis
Margrave Bashaw 0% +60
10 +5% +55
11 Count
Graf Pasha +10% +50
12 Bishop +20% +45
13 Viscount
Waldgraf Emir Amir Khan +25% +40
14 +30% +35
15 Baron
Thane Sheikh Namab +40% +30
16 Abbot +45% +25
17 Baronet Freiherr Seigneur Malik +50% +20
18 +55% +15
19 Knight Ritter Chevalier +60% +10
20 Prior +65% +5

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